#2'2019

CONTENTS

Michael A. Glassow. PREHISTORY IN THE SANTA BARBARA CHANNEL REGION AND ITS CONTEXT WITHIN CALIFORNIA PREHISTORY 

PLANIGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF HEARTH ASSEMBLAGE 2Б IN THE
KOVRIZHKA-IV CULTURAL HORIZON: RECONSTRUCTING
AN ACTIVITY SITUATION

A.V. Tetenkin

Recently, archaeological studies in the basin of Vitim river have been enriched
by investigations on the Kovrizhka-IV camp site. So far, it’s yielded 16 cultural
horizons, the lower 14 of which reside within the fl oodplain alluvial facies dated
from 16–15 radiocarbon Y.B.P. One of the most researched is the 2Б cultural
horizon. Charcoal from this horizon gave AMS dates of 15320±100 Y.B.P. (LTL-
16563A) and 15460±80 Y.B.P. (Poz-106962), bone gave 14940±80 Y.B.P. (Poz-
106023). Th e “2Б” cultural horizon proved to be a sizeable area of cultural layer,
one of the structural components of which is the hearth assemblage 4.5×4.5 m
in size. Th is article describes an attempt to reconstruct, mostly referring to planigraphy,
the activity situation associated with this particular spot.
Th e number of collected items reached 7243 samples including 35 fi nished
tools and 233 microblade fragments. Among the fi nished tools, tapered microblade
nuclei and chisel-like tools prevail.
Analysis of microstratigraphic and planigraphic sequencing in cultural layers
and refi tting of lithic artifacts permitted to reconstruct stages of hearth assemblage
development determined by human activity. Th e preserved evidence
of economic functionality of the hearth assemblage in the 2Б cultural horizon
can be seen in pre-processing of tapered nuclei and chipping the microblades
from them as well as in the use of chisel-like tools; from the dietary point of
view, in consuming of snow sheep and moose. Habitation season was presumably
winter. Together with cultural horizons 6 and 2Г on the site of Kovrizhka-
IV, the described 2Б horizon constitutes a triad of the most researched in situ
stratifi ed data-rich archaeological assemblages dated earlier than 15000 radiocarbon
years, and as such, being the oldest in the Vitim valley.

Keywords: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Kovrizhka-IV camp site, microstratigraphy,
planigraphic and x-ray fl uorescence analyses, refi tting of lithic artifacts, Vitim
river, Northern Cis-Baikalia.

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Kojima Yoshitaka. AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL STUDY ABOUT THE ROAD NETWORK OF BOHAI

APPLIED ARTS IN KRASKINSKOYE WALLED TOWN

E.V. Astashenkova

Examining fi nds of Bohai applied art objects in view of technique and technologies,
décor and shape, locus and/or archaeological environment, functionality,
etc., we can better understand aesthetic preferences among mediaeval populations,
prevailing social ideologies, traditions, cults, and beliefs, the developmental
stage of manufacturing facilities, the patterns and vectors of economic,
social or political variables, socio-political structuring at various stages of state
development, and so on. Objects of art can be informative sources per se, as well
as complement and clarify data already known from other sources. More than
30 years of research on Kraskinskoye fortifi ed town site produced a sizeable
collection of artifacts signifi cant part of which constitute the objects of artistic
value. Noteworthy, there are sets of items counting up dozens of samples assigned
to a particular group by certain common features, and at the same time,
isolated objects occur, some of them unique, others appearing similar to ones
previously found on another Bohai sites. For the sake of this publication, we
chose functionality as a signature feature for categorizing objects of decorative
art as follows: architectural elements, belt accessories, decorations, adornments,
housewares, miniature fi gurines of uncertain attribution. Analyzed in their entirety,
these fi nds seem to be attesting to the Kraskinskoye site as a district center
within the capital area. Th is collection of goods suggests the coexistence of two
components within the medieval urban culture — elite and common — and
permits to understand an evolution of urban culture as a whole. Th e architectural
features are specifi cally important for temporal sequencing of the site occupation,
defi ning its administrative status and substantiating our understanding of
gradual strengthening of centralized power.

Keywords: Bohai state, Kraskinskoye walled town, applied arts, architectural
ceramics, adornments, belt accessories, Buddhist fi gurines.

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FLAWED BUILDING CERAMICS AND MANUFACTURE WASTE FROM
SUKHOI ARBULAK SITE (TRANS-BAIKAL TERRITORY):
PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A FIELD STUDY

S. E. Baksheyeva, I. Yu. Buravlev

Th e article deals with problems of studying defective bulding ceramic items
and production waste discovered during the excavations on the site of Sukhoi
Arbulak located in the Borzinsky district of Transbaikal Territory. Th e site
contains remnants of a manufacturing center for the production of ceramic
building materials including glazed ones, and dates back to the Yuan Empire
(1271–1368). Th e production center manufactured ceramics for Konduy palace
complex located a few kilometers from the site. Th e object of interest was the
massive collection of ceramic building materials (bricks, tiles, roofi ng sculptures)
with various defects, as well as the remains of slag originating from excavation
sites 1 and 2 together with an assortment of of surface fi nds. Defective
products and production waste are a full-fl edged material source which testifi es
to the peculiarities of manufacturing process aimed at producing the building
ceramics. Th e slag in this case occurred in the form of highly burnt clay. Defects
in ceramics inevitably occurred at diff erent stages of manufacturing: when
molding, drying, or fi ring. Th e latter is most frequently occurring in the form of
objects with slagged, vitrifi ed surfaces, expanded, i.e. exposed to high temperatures,
shard. Defective products also happened, probably, as a result of improper
preparation of clay mix recipe or the use of not quite suitable raw clay sources. A
separate, rather broad group of products from the site, comprises items that resulted
from failed experiments with glaze as exemplifi ed by defects in the form
of bubbles, cake, rebound and dry glazes. Chemical analysis of powdery red
substance residue on the surface of roof sculpture pieces enabled us to interpret
the substance as dry glaze preparation founded on a coloring pigment with iron
oxide. Th e analyzed clays and ceramic fragments revealed an increased levels
of calcium. Тhe authors came forward with the convincing suggestion that the
study of faulty goods and production waste should be paid more csholarly attention
as a valid fi eld of research within the archaeological mainframe ceramic
studies.

Keywords: production, building ceramics, craft , Yuan Dynasty, Mongol Empire,
Trans-Baikal Territory, Sukhoi Arbulak, Konduy palace complex, kilns,
roof tiles, bricks, roof sculpture, glaze waste, defects, production waste.

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THE MOHE COMPONENT IN BOHAI CULTURE
(BY DATA FROM KRASKINSKOYE WALLED TOWN)

Ya. E. Piskareva

Th e State of Bohai was established by a Mohe tribal community named Sumo.
Bohai expanded beyond its initial borders, and in the fi rst half of 8th century
occupied southern lands of Primorye inhabited by consanguine Mohe tribes.
Th e status of those territories was volatile: at the early stage they were perceived
as remote outskirts, gradually becoming inner provinces as time went by, or
even stopped being treated as peripheral outposts at all (Nikitin 2005: 520).
Th e author maintains that Mohe traditions were cherished in the Bohai culture
of southern Primorye throughout the whole time of existence of the Bohai
State. Th is article specifi cally covers the Mohe component in the Bohai culture.
Our main sources are materials from Kraskinskoye walled town, the town that
played a role of administrative center of the Yan district in Bohai. Many years
of meticulous investigations on the site resulted in discovering and exposing six
building horizons which means that all fi xed structures and movable fi nds can
be analyzed both spatially and temporally with reference to the stratigraphy of
the site. Artifacts suggest the Mohe traditions to have been prominent in various
facets of life of the Bohai people. For example, millet cultivation and pig
breeding were common trades among the Mohe, and continued to be practiced
into the Bohai time. However, agriculture took certain twists and turns in Bohai
due to introduction of new millet species and overall broadening of cultivated
greenery spectrum. Judging by the presence of a huge number of agricultural
tools, tending of soil gets more and more important. Another spheres where
the Mohe traditions have fl ourished even more conspicuously is house building
and ceramics industry. In house building practices this is seen in the example
of dwellings featuring a deepened depression found in the lowest horizons of
Kraskinskoye site. In the ceramic industry sphere, the Mohe traditions manifest
themselves in the “Mohe-appearance” pottery, and in the presence of Mohe
aspects in the Bohai’s pottery — and those occur in all of the Kraskinskoye horizons.

Keywords: Mohe, Bohai, early Middle Ages, Kraskinskoye walled town,
dwellings, ceramics, tradition.

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LATEST EXCAVATION RESULTS

FORTIFIED SETTLEMENT ROSLAVKA-1 — A NEW SITE
OF PALEOMETAL EPOCH IN CENTRAL PRIMORYE

I.V. Belova, D.M. Belov

Th e article describes the site of Roslavka-1 located in Central Primorye and
discovered in 2015. Th e site is a fortifi ed mountain settlement which apparently
served as an observation post and a fortress-refuge. Th e ceramic complex
acquired from the reconnaissance pit can be attributed to Paleometal epoch
according to morphological and technological features. It is noticeable that
the ceramics from the settlement have some similarities with materials from
some early Iron Age cultures, yet belong to an unknown cultural tradition in
Primorye. Th e authors conclude that the further study of this settlement is a
highly promising prospect.

Keywords: Roslavka-1, fortifi ed settlement, early Iron Age, Paleometal epoch,
Primorye.

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A NEWLY FOUND CERAMIC ASSEMBLAGE DATED FROM
THE EARLY METAL AGE IN JEWISH AUTONOMOUS OBLAST.
THE SITE OF RUCHEIKI-1. 2018 FIELDWORK

M. A. Gabrilchuk

Th is article presents the results from the 2018 investigation of an ancient
habitation spot of Rucheiki-1 in the Oktiabrski district of Jewish Autonomous
Oblast in far eastern Russia. Th e site was explored stratigraphically. Th e
fi eldwork allowed to examine remnants of a habitation depression and the
adjacent lot. Th e authors have come to understand the basics of the construction
features, particularly hearth and fi re spots. Th e main body of materials from
the excavation pit comprises early paleometal assemblages. Th e authors focused
on studying lithic and ceramic assemblages. Th e fi nds include shards attributed
to Maliszewski Neolithic culture. Worth mentioning is an iron item subjected
to x-ray fl uorescence analysis. Th e site yielded as early radiocarbon dates as
fi rst half of 2nd millennium B.C. for certain artifacts. Th e whole body of the
obtained data permits to tie this newly discovered pottery to the Neolithic,
on the one hand, and to infer participation of this ceramics in the genesis of
Urilskaya culture.

Keywords: ceramics with subhorizontal and horizontal incisions, assemblage,
Urilskaya culture, Maliszewski culture, Neolithic, paleometal, Jewish Autonomous
Oblast.

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