Wang Peixin
Th e paper considers problems of interpretation of Bohai archaeological
culture basing on the whole totality of archaeological sites related to this
state. Basing on the recent studies of Chinese scholars in the fi eld of theory
of archaeological culture and its ethnical interpretation and also on historical
sourses the author proposes an approach to Bohai archaeological culture as to the
culture of polyethnic state, in connection with it he distinguishes several regions
of the spread of this culture, with diff erent cultural features. Certain cultural
factors which aff ected a formation of local image of the culture prevailed in each
of these regions. Th us, in the region of Tumenjiang valley an infl uence of Tang
Empire’s cultural factor prevails. Exactly this region was original center of Bohai
state. Here the core of the ruling group consisted of Bohai founder Da Zuorong’s
Mohe who escaped from Tang’s captivity lasted for three decades and were
exposed to strong cultural infl uence of Tang. In the western region – upstream
of Sungari River (Songhuajiang) and Yalu River valley – an infl uence of Koguryo
cultural factor prevails, the same is observed on the east coast of North Korea.
Finally, in the upper and middle stream of Mudanjiang River region a factor
of south part of Mohe predominates. Also the character of Bohai culture was
aff ected by the diff erence in social and economic development of its regions. Th e
sites of the central zone – remains of capital towns and graveyards of members
of the royal family in the valleys of Tumenjiang and Mudanjiang – demonstrate
features of the advanced statehood, however, sites of areas of settlement of the
north part of Mohe situated to the north and east from the central zone refl ect
not so high level of the social development.
Key words: Tang Empire, Bohai State, Koguryo, Mohe, Bohai people, ethnical

E.A. Bessonova, S.A. Zverev, T.A. Kharchenko,
V.V. Sattarova, A.S. Telichko
In 2013-2015 a complex geological-geomagnetic research was made on
territory and periphery of XIII century archeological site “Konduiski township”
in Zabaikalsky krai of Russia as observing sites of Mongol Empire by noninvasive
methods. Cultural layer was accounted as part of modern deposits of
antropogenic origin. For the fi rst time, reliable information about the production
of building ceramics on the territory of the monument was obtained: the ruins of
4 kilns were found. Two groups of kilns consisting of 12 isle constructions were
marked in Konduiski environs. Kiln furnishes specifi c magnetic anomaly, which
along with petrophysical observations allowed to fi nd out patterns of kilns’
functional diff erence related to diff erent methods of ceramic fi ring. Preliminary
insight of constructive ceramics production center structure which was located
in surroundings of archeological site was made. Its size and inner arrangements
were approximately valued. Infrastructure of construction ceramics production
site in Konduiski township is similar to that of Krakorum production complex.
Geological-geomagnetic research results require further confi rmation by
Key words: magnetometry, magnetization intensity, medieval constructive ceramics,
brick kilns, Konduiski township.

E.I. Gelman
Th is article focuses on ceramics from Kraskinskoye ancient town site. Th e
site once was the center of Yan district which itself was part of the Bohai state’s
East Capital area (698-926 ad), as no ted in Chinese chronicles. Th e town site was
strategically important as a seaport, a trade and diplomatic gateway. Th is site has
been excavated for nearly 30 years now; it is a recognized reference site for the Bohai
culture that yielded an array of objects and permitted to grasp, if incompletely, the
inner topography of this kind of settlements. Archaeological materials from there
are abundant and diverse. Of those, ceramics are the most ubiquitous category of
artifacts that multifacetedly refl ects economic, social, and cultural aspects of life
in the mediaeval town. Th e author analyzes handmade and wheel-made pottery
techniques (clay properties, molding, fi nishing, ornamenting, fi ring), décor and
vessel shapes. It has been disclosed that potters used natural sandy clays. Th e
forming if vessels took several steps including battering. Oft entimes a potter
would decorate either handmade or wheel-made product with polished décor by
a variety of methods. A small part of the wheel-made vessels from Kraskinskoye
is covered with engobe. Th e fi ring of wheel-made ceramics was done in a
reduction atmosphere as a rule. Vessel shapes vary greatly. Th e handmade pottery
comprises three groups and three types. Th e wheel-made ceramics can be divided
in 28 groups and 77 types of vessels. However, current classifi cation is obviously
temporary because each year of excavations yields more pottery of new type or
with previously unknown features.
Key words: wheel-made and handmade ceramics, Kraskinskoye fortifi ed town site,
Bohai State, pottery shapes, production techniques.


(1st – first half of the 2nd millennium ad)
R.V. Davydov*
Th is paper presents results of an integrated analysis of hammer-fi les, a unique
type of metalworking tools distributed on the territory of southern Siberia since
the 1st through fi rst half of the 2nd millennium ad . Investigations yielded 26
samples of those either physically present in museum and private collections or
described in specialized literature.
Th e hammer-fi le is a combination tool that incorporates three functional elements:
the hammer-head with one or two faces (panes or chisel blades), the fi le
with a slit that vary in type, and the handle.
Depending on morphological characteristics of a particular tool, we divided
them into fi ve groups. Groups I (T-shaped, symmetrical) and II (T-shaped, symmetrical,
enlarged) date from the fi rst half to the middle of 1st millennium ad and
relate to Tashtyk culture; groups III (L-shaped), IV (T-shaped, asymmetrical, with
chisel blade), and V (T-shaped, asymmetrical) relate to the Yenisei Kyrgyz culture.
In general, the manufacturing technology for hammer-fi les involves the following
procedures: forging of the fi le and handle, forming of the hammer-head,
applying of decorative elements, and making of the cut while quenching. Within
this scheme, two technological patterns can be distinguished: the “Tashtyk” one
(groups I and II; the hammer-head is made separately from the workpiece, then
gets mounted on the handle), and the “Kyrgyz” one (groups III, IV and V; the
hammer-head is formed by shaping up the end part of the handle).
By comparison with functional elements of modern tools we've defi need the
hammer-fi le as a jeweler’s tool. Such fi les are designed for fi ne treatment of
fl at or convex surfaces. Unsophisticated earlier samples of these tools could be
used for coarse pretreatment of non-ferrous metals. Flat sides of the instrument
served to fl atten and stretch metallic objects. Chisel blades were intended for
minor scoring.
To put it simplistically, the hammer-fi le can be perceived as a combination of
functional surfaces each of which has already been known as a separate tool.
However, only an insignifi cant amount of jeweler’s “simple hammers” has been
found in the region, and that can be explained by popularity of hammer-fi les
as a more universal tool compared to “simple” hammer. Being more eff ective,
and therefore more in demand, the hammer-fi les could have just displaced the
“simple hammers”.
Th e burials that contained the fi le-hammers notably lack any other objects
that would suggest those graves to be interpreted as jewelers’ graves. Th eir assemblages
are typical for those associated with warriors’ burials, so it doesn’t
seem possible to conclusively identify the deceased individuals as jewelers. On
the other hand, hammer-fi les never occur in warrior assemblages.
Th e authors attribute the emergence of the described combo tools to the mobility
of artisans’ lifestyle in a nomadic society. Hammer-fi les are double-purpose
tools, an evidence of sophistication in manufacturing of jewelry, the development
of jewel industry in the area, and extension of craft smen’s inventory.
* Th is work was undertaken within the scope of government assignment in the fi eld of scientifi c
research (project 1.4539.2017/8.9) involving materials of the Minusinsk Martianov museum of
area studies
The disappearance of hammer-fi les can be explained by the decline of metalworking
industry in the region in the middle of the 2nd millennium ad , what
appears to be a consequence of the Kyrgyz having been defeated by the Mongols.
Aft er that event the Kyrgyz metal-working production could never recover to
the previous level. Under such circumstances the tools became less sophisticated.
Key words: archaeology, Southern Siberia, Hun-Sarmatian period, Middle
Ages, hammers-fi les, morphology, metalworking, technology.

S.D. Prokopets, D.M. Belov
For some time now, the research equipment for an archaeologist has been
getting enriched with sophisticated hi-tech gadgetry and targeted soft ware,
what expands possibilities of visualizing archaeological data, provides novelty
techniques and new approaches to collecting and storing the data for further
reference. Th is article recounts some history behind photography in archaeological
studies and the advent of photogrammetry in Russia. Next, the authors
discuss several aspects of using sophisticated modern equipment, specifi cally
contemporary digital imaging devices, drones, and tacheometer for the purpose
of capturing archaeological data. Th e authors share their own experience
in creating orthophoto planes, knowledge about soft ware usage prerequisites
and practical tweaks. Th ey also discuss pros and cons of using the drones in archaeology,
specifi cally for photogrammetry of archaeological sites. Newbies and
prospective users are supposed to be among the most interested.
Key words: Kondon, culture, conglomerate, unindentifi ed assemblage, radiocarbon
Song Yubin
Following both written sources and archaeological discoveries, the article
brings up the problem of Bohai capitals (698–926 ad). Th e author examines the
meaning and nature of the Five Capital Towns system (京, jing) in the Bohai State
with special attention to written sources, and comes to a conclusion that not all
fi ve capitals of the Bohai time span were qualifi ed to serve as a national capital
(万都, wangdu) because of specifi c architectural peculiarities. Next, the author
identifi es Xigucheng, Baliancheng, and Dongjingcheng sites as towns that played,
each in its time, the role of a capital city of Bohai, and establishes a chronological
sequence for these sites drawing on the archaeological records. Th e author’s main
criteria include city planning features, tile edge decor, similarities and diff erences
in makers’ branding of tiles, ornamentation and materials used for the making
of chiwei (palace rooft op fi nishing planks). Th e author provides a closer look at
the South Capital Nanhaifu at Chonghae archaeological town site as an example
showing that the jing, one of the towns that comprised the ‘Five Capitals’ system,
does not comply with criteria defi ning the Bohai’s main capital city. Concluding,
the author off ers a new approach to the classic theory of Central Capital
Xiandefu’s location, arguing that the Xigucheng town site should be regarded
as the most probable location of Xianzhou, the Bohai capital during the Tianbao
rule, instead of Xiandefu, the Central capital, since we have no historical
reasons to associate the latter with Siguchen.
Key words: Bohai state, Five Capitals system, Xianzhou, Central Capital

Jung Suk-Bae
In this paper, we take a closer look at the iron weapons from the Chernyatino-
5 burial ground site. Th is site yielded both off ensive and defensive
types of weapons. Th e fi rst are represented by iron fi ghting knives, spears and
arrowheads, the second type by iron armor plates. Th eir morphological features
are subject of our special concern. We also provide relevant materials from other
sites for comparison.
Th e fi ghting knives count to 7 items in total. By length, they can be divided
into small (40-50 cm) and large (66-90 cm) ones.
Our collection of iron spearheads includes 5 items. All of them are socketed.
By shape, they are divided in two types. Th e apex of the spearheads of the fi rst
type has an elongated triangular end, is a bit narrowed in its middle, and slightly
widens to the base, which is the most characteristic feature of these spears.
Spears of the second type have blades with parallel sides and an acute point. Th e
length of the spearheads is 23.2-28.4 cm.
In the fi eld seasons 2003-2008 nineteen pieces of iron arrowheads were found
in total. Among them, stalked ones prevail, but the stalkless also occur. Stalked
arrowheads can be divided into single-stepped, stepless, and spiked. Th ese
arrowheads usually have an elongated-triangular or rhombic ‘‘body’’. Almost all
arrowheads are two-bladed, however, one three-bladed sample occurred too. It
is worth noting that this burial ground yielded no Z-shaped, chisel-shaped or
double-horned arrowheads.
Iron armor plates were found mainly in fragments, so it is diffi cult to
reconstruct their shapes. Only the grave 95 yielded two whole plates.
Key words: Chernyatino-5, off ensive and defensive weapons, fi ghting knives,
spears, arrowheads, armour plates, Mohe, Bohai (698-926).

S.M. Fokin
In 2017 an amateur digger unearthed a solitary moundless grave north off of the
Krasnoyarsk outskirts near Drokino village on the left bank of river Kacha, a Yenisei
tributary. Th e burying rite is believed to be “cremation on one side”. Th e grave lacked
any above-ground marks, and was located at the foot of a hill surrounded by a steppen
landscape. Th e site yielded a notably rich inventory, 82 artifacts in total, including armor,
weaponry, and horse harness parts. Most impressive are iron arrowheads, a quiver
hook, belt buckles, and horse bits. Most artifacts are bronze, such as attachment plates,
belt buckles, and harness holders. Th e fi nds also include a series of plates featuring a
“fl aming pearl” motif. Th e harness assemblage closely resembles those found on Ynisei
Kyrgyz sites within the limits of Minusinsk Hollow and in Tuva. Th e analogies helped to
date the burial to X-XI centuries ad . Despite the presence of Kyrgyz-originated artifacts
the burial site is believed to belong with the local population; the interred could be a
Kyshtym warrior. Th is inference can be further supported by the fact of the absence
of any burial mound or gravestone, along with the location at the bottom of hill, an
unlikely choice for the Kyrgyz people.
Key words: Middle Ages, Yenisei Kyrgyz, horse harness, arrowhead, fl oral
ornament, Priyeniseysky Siberia, Minusinsk Hollow, Tuva, Krasnoyarsk.
V.A. Deryugin
Th e northwestern coast of the Tatar Strait is one of the poorly studied
territories, in archaeological terms, in the southern Far East of Russia. This is due, on the one hand, to inaccessibility of the larger part of continental coast
of the strait and, on the other hand, the lack of a suffi cient cohort of specialists
in the Far East of Russia, not to mention other adverse realities of our times.
Th erefore, at this stage of the research any new information should be eagerly
Th e article describes several small museum collections from the Khabarovsk
and So-vetskaya-Gavan museums. Th e museums obtained these collections as
an infl ux of random fi ndings from two archaeological sites located at the mouth
of the River Koppi during the 1980s. Stone tools are represented only in the form
of pebble sinkers, so here we focus solely on ceramics as the most informative
In the case of the museum collections from the Koppi-3 site, attention is
drawn to ceramics with puncture holes under the rim. Pottery with such
ornamentation became perceived as an independent Samarga culture, possibly
dating from between last centuries of the 1st mil. BC and the 1st mil. ad . On the
Koppi-3 site, as well as at the Falshivaya-3 site, we see a mixture of elements of
Lidovka and Samarga cultures, where the latter dominates.
Ceramics with false-textile ornament on the surface and relief rollers, an
independent Tumnin type previously believed to date from the middle of the
1st mil. AD, is present in a very small amount of artifacts.
Th e ceramics from the Koppi-4 site is represented by fragments of a single
vessel with fl at bottom, a rounded body, and relatively high straight neck. Th e
coronoid part is almost L-shaped, what suggests a feasibility of associating it
with the largest group of vessels from the Kunalei settlement.
Key words: Tatar Strait, river Koppi, paleometal age, Samarga culture, Lidovka
culture, ceramic of Tumnin type.

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